Annotated Bibliography: Global Film Industries

Rajadhyaksha, Ashish 2003, ‘The ‘Bollywoodization’ of the Indian cinema: cultural nationalism in a global arena’, Inter-Asia cultural studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 25-39

In this source, Rajadhyaksha (2003, pp.25-39) discusses the popularity of India’s film industry, Bollywood. He explains how this has become a global industry, targeting many more than the billion South Asians, or Desis, at home. This has resulted in a major expansion of the Indian entertainment industry, and hundreds of millions of Bollywood fans. Rajadhyaksha also examines a number of sources claiming that “the Indian film industry is not solely based in Mumbai, that ‘foreign money’ is still hardly available for film productions even though it would like to cream off non-local distribution profits; that such money is not necessarily distinguishable from the ‘underworld’ and is, therefore, not exactly what you would describe as ‘benign’”. Rajadhyaksha explains that there is a significant distinction between the Bollywood industry and the Indian cinema. Bollywood is significantly more recent, having been around for about 20 years, whereas Indian cinema has existed as a national industry for over 60 years. He also distinguishes between the audiences of the two, stating that Bollywood is intended for a diasporic audience of Indians, and can be exported into India. However, the Indian cinema is often not successful with this audience, and suffers when it comes to defining a generic production line, and a stable channel of capital inflow.

Ryoo, Woongjae 2009, ‘Globalization, or the logic of cultural hybridization: the case of the Korean wave’, Asian journal of communication, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137-151.

In this source, Ryoo (2009, pp.137-151) demonstrates the complexity and consequences of the cultural hybridization thesis in relation to the ‘globalisation of culture’ debate. He discusses the Korean wave, arguing that it is an indication of new transformations in the cultural and economic field. This phenomenon particularly indicates “a regionalization of transnational cultural flows as it entails Asian countries’ increasing acceptance of cultural production and consumption from neighbouring countries that share similar historical and cultural backgrounds, rather than from politically and economically powerful others.” Ryoo explains the formation of imagined regional community through popular culture. He states that many Asian countries have historically tended to share closer connections to the former colonial empires or advanced western countries in terms of cultural understanding and exchanges, rather than with their closest neighbours. However, this origin is changing, as many Asian cities are dedicating cultural spaces to ideas and products from popular culture (music, films, television dramas) that originated and were produced in Asia. Ryoo also explains that these changes have not yet influenced Asian politics and economies, as there are many associated dangers in relation to the stability of world order. Many countries within the Asian region are still affected by political antagonism, therefore a more stable place for public concern and discussion must be established on a transnational level.


Reference List:

Rajadhyaksha, Ashish 2003, ‘The ‘Bollywoodization’ of the Indian cinema: cultural nationalism in a global arena’, Inter-Asia cultural studies, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 25-39.

Ryoo, Woongjae 2009, ‘Globalization, or the logic of cultural hybridization: the case of the Korean wave’, Asian journal of communication, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137-151.


Annotated Bibliography: Internationalising Higher Education

Arkoudis, S., Baik, C., Marginson, S. and Cassidy, E. 2012, ‘Internationalising the student experience in Australian tertiary education: developing criteria and indicators’, Centre for the Study of Higher Education, pp. 1-30.

In this source, Arkoudis et al. (2012, pp. 1-30) discuss the process of internationalising the student experience for all students, placing a significant focus on international students. The term ‘international student’ refers to those from many different cultural backgrounds and those on many different learning journeys. This includes students who have lived and studied in a number of countries, students who have never left their home country, and students who are studying overseas for the first time. A major strength of Australian higher education is its diversity in regard to the student population, providing potential for interactions between students of many different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. However, this comes with the challenge of harnessing diversity through university teaching. Arkoudis et al. have developed the ‘Interaction for Learning Framework’ to combat this issue. It envelopes six interrelated dimensions; planning interaction, creating environments for interaction, supporting interaction, engaging with subject knowledge, developing reflexive process and fostering communities of learners. This is designed to “facilitate and promote peer interaction for learning across diverse cultural and linguistic groups of students.”

Leong, Susan & Woods, Denise 2017, ‘“I don’t care about Asia”: teaching Asia in Australia’, Journal of Australian studies, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 367-379.

In this source, Leong & Woods (2017, pp.367-379) argue that teaching is an extremely significant part of the work that remains to be done in Asian Australian studies. They explore the changing nature of teaching Asia literacy, touching on the obstacles and barriers faced, and students’ understanding of Asia literacy in relation to the political and media discourses surrounding Asia in today’s society. Their stance – intended to capture perspective – is similar to those who teach in the areas of Asians studies and/or languages. They seek to “decenter the student and to develop an intercultural identity as a result of engagement with other cultures”. This is explained using four key ideas. Firstly, learning about Asia is not limited to Asian studies units. Secondly, Leong & Woods explain that the teaching of Asia literacy should not be seen as race or culture specific. Thus, it should be based on the readiness to incorporate Asia studies into the curriculum. Thirdly, one does not have to have conquered an Asian language to be able to teach or learn Asia literacy. However, language fluency can significantly enhance a student or teacher’s cultural understanding. Lastly, Leong & Woods explore Australia’s place in Asia, as there has been a long history of troubled engagement. Although there has been a lengthy engagement of Australian institutions with Asia, official institutional rationale for Asia literacy remains economic.


Reference List:

Arkoudis, S., Baik, C., Marginson, S. and Cassidy, E. 2012, ‘Internationalising the student experience in Australian tertiary education: developing criteria and indicators’, Centre for the Study of Higher Education, pp. 1-30.

Leong, Susan & Woods, Denise 2017, ‘“I don’t care about Asia”: teaching Asia in Australia’, Journal of Australian studies, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 367-379.

Annotated Bibliography: Globalisation

O’Shaughnessy, Michael 2012, ‘Globalisation’, in Media and society, 5thed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Vic, pp. 458-471.

In this source, O’Shaughnessy (2012, pp. 458-471) discusses the positive and negative impacts of globalisation, and the relationship between globalisation and technological and economic changes in the media industries. He defines globalisation as “an international community influenced by technological development and economic, political, and military interests. It is characterised by a worldwide increase in interdependence, interactivity, interconnectedness, and the visually instantaneous exchange of information.” O’Shaughnessy explains the three qualities of globalisation; instantaneity, interconnectedness and interdependence. It is instantaneous as it offers fast access to information and events that are distant. Globalisation allows people to feel a sense of interconnectedness as it facilitates interpersonal communication and the development of community. It also encompasses economic and political interdependence, going beyond regional and national restrictions. O’Shaughnessy cites Anderson (1991, p. 6) as he explains the term ‘imagined communities’ as an effect of the globalisation of communication media. It suggests that all people located in different areas of the world can be brought closer together. Anderson explains that a sense of comradeship and common interests characterises the global village as a result of the democratisation of communication technologies. The mass media are also a substantial body in this ‘ideal’ communication environment, in the distribution of information and generation of global discussion regarding significant events and issues. O’Shaughnessy clarifies that this global dispersal of knowledge has improved our ability to share responsibility for global issues, and recognise that we may have responsibilities to people from across the globe.

Appadurai, Arjun 1996,Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn, pp. 48-66.

In this source, Appadurai (1996, pp. 48-66) discusses global cultural flows, a dimension of globalisation. He explores global ethnoscapes in detail. The term ‘ethnoscape’ refers to the landscapes of group identity, for example the shifting landscape of tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles and guest workers. This affects the politics of, and between nations. Appadurai explains that the changing social, territorial and cultural reproduction of group identity has forced the ‘ethno’ in ethnography to undertake a nonlocalized quality. Thus, compelling the descriptive practices of anthropology to react. This change relates to the global ethnoscapes no longer being characterised as “tightly territorialised, spatially bounded, historically unselfconscious, or culturally homogeneous.” The number of cultures in the world has dropped, as the number of internal cultural debates has increased. Appadurai also explains ethnographic cosmopolitanism as a challenging study for current anthropology. He explores the cosmopolitan cultural forms of the modern world, clarifying the importance of studying new cosmopolitanisms alongside the transnational cultural flows within which they thrive, compete and influence each other. Thus, there is a need to focus on the cultural dynamics of deterritorialization – the elimination of social, cultural or political customs from their native places and populations.

** Please note these sources are not in alphabetical order due to the flow of the content


Reference List:

Appadurai, Arjun 1996,Modernity at large: cultural dimensions of globalization, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn, pp. 48-66.

O’Shaughnessy, Michael 2012, ‘Globalisation’, in Media and society, 5thed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Vic, pp. 458-471.


The Story of Me: A blogging evolution

All throughout my life, I have had a passion for literature. During the school week, my afternoons would be spent reading mainly fantasy novels about vampires and werewolves (yes, I’ll admit I was a die-hard Twilight fan). This would also be how I spent every weekend, regardless of the fact that I lived on the beach. I also loved writing; sometimes about the things I love, but mostly about dreams and other dimensions that intrigued me. Growing up in a household that was full of unhealthy relationships, I lived for the escape I found in reading and writing about different times and places. Although I loved writing and its therapeutic nature, I never had a desire to share my work with anyone. The first time I gained the courage to write in a public space was when I was 9 years old in grade three studying poetry. My teacher encouraged me to enter a poem I had written about my missing turtle into a competition. I ended up getting it published in a book called “simply poetry” and that’s about where my public writing career both began and ended…

Fast forward to me at 18 years old, starting my first year at university studying a Bachelor of Communication and Media Studies. Hello blogging!


I remember being so nervous to share my thoughts with my peers, and whoever else in the world was reading! As soon as I posted something I would look on twitter for other people’s work and then doubt myself more and more if it wasn’t similar enough. Although my writing style or as I like to call it, my ‘blogging voice’ has not changed considerably, I have developed significantly when it comes to conducting research before a blog post. I now include information that adds value and validates the point I am trying to make. On that note… Kissmetrics is a blog that is used by over 900 companies. It was “built to help marketers and product teams increase conversions, engagement and retention”. In a post they published titled “The Nine Ingredients That Make Great Content”, it explains that the more sources and content you link to, the more your post will be supported and trusted by your readers. In short, accuracy builds audience trust (Kissmetrics, 2017). Do you trust me yet?

Conducting research before I even begin a blog post has helped my work develop in terms of its direction and structure. It allows me to further understand the topic I am writing about, and the best way to present this to my audience. Before I started doing this, my posts took a lot longer for me to write and my lack of confidence in the material definitely showed. We should conduct this research in order to find out:

  1. Facts
  2. What others have written

This will help, obviously with knowledge levels on the topic, but also in terms of developing one’s individual perspective/viewpoint (Tart, N 2017). This is extremely significant for me as a blogger, because I need my writing style or ‘blogging voice’ to be strong and confident in order to connect with and persuade the readers.

I have also found that adding media to my blog posts enhances the aesthetic, transforming them from boring into visually appealing. This is extremely important for me as a researcher, as it allows me to both discover existing media surrounding my topic, and give the audience a thorough understanding within a short piece of writing. Visual content will get a blog noticed, spark engagement and shares, and drive traffic (Moritz, D 2013). Using visuals also helps to persuade the audience to read a blog post. For me, I like to advertise my blog posts on twitter including images that make a reader want to learn more.

On that note, I have sourced a video explaining the success a blog can have if it includes many visual features. The purpose of this video is for a marketing blog, but seeing as though marketing and advertisement is my university major, it is definitely relevant.

Video from <;

The most significant facts from the video are:

  • Visual content is 40 times more likely to get shared on social media than other types of content (Buffer, 2014)
  • Articles with an image once every 75-100 words got double the number of social shares than articles with fewer images (Buzzsumo, 2015)
  • Researchers found that coloured visuals increase people’s willingness to read a piece of content by 80% (Xerox, 2014)

Starting from this post, I am definitely going to start using a lot more visuals to enhance my content.

The last thing I am going to talk about is something I have learnt to utilise this semester in my blog posts, and that is tags. When a user is searching for content, websites with relevant tags will show up. Tags help your blog post when it comes to Search Engine Optimisation (SEO). That is, improving the Google search ranking of your post to increase its reach. Below is a comparison of 2016 and 2017 reach and exposure for The amount of countries viewing my content has more than doubled! 

In conclusion, I have significantly evolved as a public writer and researcher, into someone who is confident in their individual work. I have learnt many different tools to utilise in my blog posts such as tags, media and A LOT of research! This has helped me to increase my exposure from UOW students in Australia, to people from nine different countries. There are still millions of ways I can improve, and I cannot wait to share them with my readers (all over the world)!



YOUNG and DUMB on social media

At 13 years old, I was too young to drink alcohol, I was too young to drive a car, I was too young to apply for a casual job, and I was definitely too young to make serious decisions regarding my safety. However, I was legally old enough to make an account on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat.

Hang on, how does it make sense that I was too young to ensure my own safety yet I was old enough to use social media? It doesn’t.

For example…

Consider the recent Snapchat update (Snap Map) that allows a user’s friends to view their exact location every time they open the app. Remembering my use of social media when I was this young, I had hundreds of ‘friends’ on various platforms; a lot of these people being complete strangers. That means that every single one of these strangers would be able to view my exact location at different times of the day. Although you can hide your location in ‘ghost mode’, at 13 years of age, most children would not give this any thought in terms of their safety.

View every online predator’s dream come true below:

Video available from <;

The reasoning behind the age restriction for most social media platforms is because it is illegal to collect, store or share personal information from a child under the age of 13.

The age limit for the popular photo sharing platform ‘Instagram’ is stated under section 6 of their privacy policy:

“Instagram does not knowingly collect or solicit any information from anyone under the age of 13 or knowingly allow such persons to register for the Service. The Service and its content are not directed at children under the age of 13. In the event that we learn that we have collected personal information from a child under age 13 without parental consent, we will delete that information as quickly as possible. If you believe that we might have any information from or about a child under 13, please contact us.”

I believe social media platforms need to look beyond their legal obligations and make a conscious effort to protect the privacy of their users! I personally believe that children are too young at the age of 13 to be able to use these websites safely. What’s worse is that the only thing these platforms require for age confirmation is a users birthday with NO PROOF NECESSARY! I would suggest that these rules be much stricter, with age restrictions going up and ensuring that users provide proof of age before gaining access.


Work for that break!

So, The Bachelorette starts tonight! Heres’s how I will most likely be watching it; laying on my bed with it playing on my TV, WHILST online shopping on my laptop for those ‘Vogue online shopping night’ discounts, WHILST constantly checking my social media accounts on my mobile phone.

Although this does indeed sound like a very distracting way to watch a television show, it is one that is common to most millennials today. I’m sure if you’re reading this you either are guilty, or know someone who is. Now, this does not seem to cause a problem for me when it comes to watching TV, however the cracks do start to appear when I am trying to study (or write these blog posts). I find myself constantly refreshing my emails or my Instagram feed, starting meaningless conversations with people on messenger, and online shopping for things I definitely don’t need. This impacts on my study significantly, especially in regards to the time I spend on each activity.

This is referred to as ‘multitasking’, which is a term that was originally used when referring to the way computers can perform various tasks simultaneously. I must continue to remind myself that while computers were designed for this purpose, humans were not!

So, whilst I was trying to find a way to overcome my need to multitask when I should be focusing, I came across an app called ‘focus booster’ which uses the Pomodoro technique. This is becoming extremely popular in time management, as you work in blocks of time, followed by a short break (this is usually 25 mins – 5 mins). See the video below for more information:

Video from:

Personally, I found this app effective because I used it on my mobile phone (my main form of distraction), which eliminated my ability to use it for anything else. Every time I checked my phone, I knew how long I had before my break so it encouraged me to keep going. Somehow, it feels a lot better to be checking my social media accounts once I have earned it.



Think before you flash

For this weeks post, I was asked to take a photo of someone using a mobile device in public. Approaching strangers is not something I feel comfortable doing, let alone explaining to them that I have taken photos without asking (creepy, right?). The strangest thing about this is that it is LEGAL.

It is indeed possible to take photographs in public places without asking for permission of any kind. This includes capturing buildings, sites and people. There was a criminal case in Australia that used street surveillance photography as evidence, in which the Judge stated:

“A person, in our society, does not have a right not to be photographed.” 

(Arts Law Centre of Australia, 2017)

Even though this activity is legal, I believe that there are some ethical considerations that must be acknowledged. For me, personally, I would not feel safe having my photograph taken in a public place without being asked for my permission.

Conveniently, this week someone did just that! Luckily, it was a person who I feel extremely safe around, my brother. However, it was still a shock seeing that he had captured me completely without my knowledge. See the photo below:


Yes, I am taking photos of my Kelpie to post on Instagram… Anyway, I think that if I were to write down my own guide of ethics to taking photos of people in public, they would be something like this:

  • Do not take someone’s photo if they are in a compromising position
  • Ask the subject after you have taken an appropriate photo (in order to get the perfect candid shot!) if they would like you to dispose of the image
  • Ask the subject’s permission if you plan on using this image in any way e.g. posting it on a public platform

As for people captured in the background of a photograph, well thats a whole other story… I’m sure I can be found in many family photo albums around the world if you look close enough, and you know what, I’m okay with that.


“Shhh”… why people are now more inclined to ‘Netflix and chill’

A trip to the cinema is not something that excites me as much as it used to when I was younger, these days I would much rather be watching Netflix in the comfort of my own bed. This seems like a trend that is similar for most of my family and friends. From this observation, I became extremely interested to find out about the history of the cinema experience. One thing that appeals to me when I think about this, is definitely the drive in movie theatre. And as it turns out, my mum was born in the 1960s, which happened to be the era of the drive in!


(Image from:

My mum grew up in Pendle Hill, about 15 minutes away from the Blacktown Drive In Cinema. She recalls “every Friday night, all the teenagers from my area would meet up, every one you knew was there. We would sneak in alcohol and flirt with the boys”. As mum continued to explain her experience with physical joy, I began to wonder why cinemas have become extremely less popular. In an attempt at understanding this, I have turned to the work of Torsten Hagerstand, who introduced the conceptual framework of time geography in the 1960s. Hagerstrand identifies three types of constraints that limit individuals in their daily activities:

  • Capability constraints – limitations on human movement due to physical or biological factors (Hagerstrand 1970, cited in Schonfelder & Azhausen 2010, p.38).
  • Coupling constraints – restrictions on the autonomous allocation of time due to the need to coordinate with institutional logistics or interactions with other individuals (Hagerstrand 1970, cited in Schonfelder & Azhausen 2010, p.38).
  • Authority constraints – limitations on when and where activities can or cannot take place (Hagerstrand 1970, cited in Schonfelder & Azhausen 2010, p.39).

These time geography constraints were evident in my mum’s experience of the Drive In cinema. Firstly, capability constraints were encountered as my mum remembers having to hide in the boot of her friends car because she could not afford the ticket every Friday. She also did not have a car of her own when she first started going, so she had to rely on her friend to drive her.

Secondly, coupling constraints were encountered as my mum recalls her mother not wanting her to be out so late at night, as the Drive In went from around 8pm to 10:30pm. It was only as she got older, that her mother became more comfortable with the idea of her being out that late in Blacktown.

Lastly, authority constraints were encountered as my mum had to sneak in alcohol to the cinema as well as having to leave as soon as the movie was over. The capability constraint of having to hide in her friends boot so that she did not have to purchase a ticket is also relevant here. However, my mum recalls “there were definitely not as many restrictions as there are now, everyone could be as loud as they wanted”.

Reflecting back on what I mentioned at the start of this post, it has become obvious to me that Hagerstrand’s time geography constraints are the reason cinemas are becoming less popular. As I briefly mentioned, I am able to watch Netflix from the comfort of my own home, with no restrictions whatsoever. Perhaps if the cinema brought back the culture of the Drive In as a social experience with less restrictions on things such as noise, seating and even alcohol, people would be more inclined to buy a ticket. I know I would be!


Schonfelder, S & Axhausen KW 2010, ‘Time, Space and Travel Analysis: An Overview’, in S Schonfelder & KW Axhausen (eds), Urban Rhythms and Travel Behaviour: Spatial and Temporal Phenomena of Daily Travel, Ashgate Publishing Company, Surrey, p. 29-48.

Corbett, J 2001, ‘Torsten Hagerstrand: Time Geography’, Centre for Spatially Integrated Social Science, University of California.



PITCHure this

Media, Audience, Place. This is a concept that is constantly evolving, one that would be extremely interesting to research in order to further understand my generation’s use of media in particular (that is Gen Y, also known as the Millennials) … so research it I shall! After a long brainstorm I have decided to investigate how media takes us places. In more detail, I will look at the social media platform, Instagram and conduct some research in an attempt to understand why it influences Millennials to travel to certain places. If you are reading this and are not from Gen Y, I will further divulge:

Two concepts I am interested in:

  1. Millennials travel to certain places so that they can document it on their Instagram profiles
  2. Millennials travel to certain places that are ‘Instagram famous’

For the first concept, I thought that I could travel to various places with people my age and document my observations (hellooooo collaborative ethnography!). From this, I could also conduct a few interviews on the Millennials who are inclined to travel for the gram potential.

For the second concept, I thought I could travel to places close by that are seen as ‘Instagram famous’ and discover whether they are glamorised by Instagram and its users. Whilst I am at these locations, I am sure I will be able to find Millennials to interview and/or observe that are there to take photos merely for their Instagram profiles.

2016-03-09-1457495022-9919311-ScreenShot20160308at9.43.14PM.pngPhoto source:

Now that I am putting my thoughts into relatively structured sentences, I think I will combine these two concepts together. My research question could be “do Millennials travel to popular places for the purpose of an Instagram photo?”

Some background resources that have helped me construct this idea:

I am looking forward to sharing my progress with you! Stay tuned… even if it is just for travel Inspo (Millennials, I’m talking to you!)


Collaborative Ethnography: from research participants to research partners

“Ethnography is, by definition, collaborative. In the communities in which we work, study, or practice, we cannot possibly carry out our unique craft without engaging others in the context of their real, everyday lives.”

The above quote can be found in an excerpt from The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography, by Luke Eric Lassiter. This quote explains the nature of the research method, as it involves teamwork between researcher and participant throughout every stage of the process. Personally, I agree with Lassiter when I say that collaborative ethnography is extremely important in order to fully understand the research topic, and communicate that honestly to the rest of the world.

Whilst reflecting on last week’s blog topic of television memories, and reading through many of my peers’ posts, I realised that we had all used this research method. We had collaborated with our interviewees in order to share the experiences they thought were significant. This provided me with an insight into the many benefits of collaborative ethnography for primary research.

Personally, I believe that it’s biggest advantage is allowing a culture to communicate its views and experiences, without them being manipulated through the research process. This is achieved with the ongoing relationship between researcher and participant. My peer’s blog post A Tale of Tanya, Television and Time, demonstrates the importance of this, as she talks not only about television, but about the interviewee’s emotions surrounding it. ‘She herself has evolved with technology… “I download TV shows on my iPad. I even have Netflix” She says proudly. “It’s just part of my life – it’s not even exciting. Somehow, I was more excited as a little girl who sat in front of the tiny black and white television waiting for Playschool to start.” Collaborative ethnography provides the researcher with a better understanding of the topic, as it provides both contextual and emotional insight.


Photo source:

Across the blog posts, it was clear that the participants had the freedom to guide the interview. This resulted in respectful and ethical ethnographic texts that accurately depicted the interviewees’ emotions and experiences.

However, this process of research is not without it’s limitations. Personally, I believe that the biggest disadvantage of collaborative ethnography is that it relies on the openness and honesty of the participant. I came across this as I was writing my own blog post on my Father’s television memories. He was extremely confident in his recount of watching the landing of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon. Yet, as I was conducting some secondary research on the topic I quickly discovered that my Father had the dates all wrong! Although this misinformation wasn’t intentional, it could have led to an inaccurate ethnographical text.

Although it is clear that collaborative ethnography indeed has it’s limitations, it remains an extremely ethical and respectful research method, allowing the participants to be involved from start to finish. This ensures that the research accurately reflects the context and emotions of it’s subject.


Lassiter, LE 2005, The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography, University of Chicago Press, Chicago